In recent years there has been a large increase in the number of individuals working for themselves in a trade, profession or vocation.
Becoming self employed is a new and exciting chapter of life, but it is crucial to get all the basics right to ensure that your new business is as successful as possible. With so much to think about, we asked David Genders, author of The Daily Telegraph Tax Guide to explain the key financial and tax points you need to consider when going self-employed.
By becoming self-employed you will have control over:
- Your working hours giving you the opportunity to fit work around family life;
- How your work is done; and
- Most importantly, the earning potential of your business.
With so much going on, it is very easy to miss some of the crucial elements of starting your own business – in particular relating to the financials. So, I have pulled together some practical guidance to help you get things right.
First things first – Am I self-employed?
In most cases it will be obvious if you are self-employed. Sometimes, however, it is difficult to distinguish between:
- Employment (a contract for service); and
- Self-employment (a contract for services).
Your business will have the trappings of self-employment if you:
- Are responsible for the success or failure of the business;
- Are paid a fixed fee, or price, for the work;
- Can decide how, when and where the work should be done;
- Can dictate the hours you work;
- Provide your own tools; and
- Significantly have no entitlement to paid holiday or sick leave.
If any of the above relate to you, then you need to consider yourself as self-employed once your business is up and running.
Self-Employment Records and Accounts
From the moment you start working as self employed, I recommend you open a separate bank account for your business. The records to account for include:
- Your sales and other receipts; and
- Purchases and overhead expenses
Invoices, bank statements and all documentation supporting purchases made should be kept and filed in an orderly manner, either electronically or manually, to help make things as easy as possible for you.
Don’t forget – You can choose the date to which you draw up the accounts of your business each year.
SELF EMPLOYED TAX TIPS
- An obvious and convenient choice to draw up your business accounts is 31st March as it coincides with the end of the Tax Year on 5th
- Sometimes, however, it is better to go with a date early on in the tax year, such as 30th April, as this gives you more time to plan for the payment of the tax due on your profit.
- Alternatively, if your business is seasonal in nature, it may pay you to pick an accounting date to coincide with the slack time of the year and when stocks are low.
The statement of the profit or loss of your business is not usually the simple difference between receipts and payments.
Adjustments are required for unpaid sales and amounts due to your suppliers or for overhead expenses at your year end. When it comes to expenses make sure you claim all the overhead costs.
SELF EMPLOYED TAX TIPS
- If you are married or live with a partner who helps in the business you can claim the salary paid to him/her as a business expense. You should pay a sensible amount for these services. If this is his/her only job or income there will be no tax or National Insurance to pay on an annual wage less than £8,164.
- If you work from home and a specific area of your home is set aside as an office you can claim a deduction for the appropriate proportion of fixed costs such as mortgage interest, council tax, light and heat, cleaning etc.
- Where the costs of your business, such as a car, are used both for personal use and work you should charge a fair and reasonable percentage of the expenditure to the business.
The profits shown by your accounts may not be the same as that on which you pay Income Tax. This is because some expenditure is not allowable in working out the taxable profits of a business. These include:
- Business entertainment;
- Amounts spent on items of a capital nature;
- Professional costs related to capital expenditure; and
- Own wages or drawings.
SELF EMPLOYED TAX TIP
Any of the expenditure for your business which you incurred in the seven years before you started to trade is:
- Treated as if it was spent on the first day of business; and
- Tax deductible.
Equipment and motor cars
A 100% rate of allowance can be claimed on annual expenditure up to £200,000 on most types of plant and machinery, equipment, furniture and fittings. The rate of allowance on expenditure on motor cars is much less generous though.
SELF EMPLOYED TAX TIP
It may be tax efficient to purchase items of a capital nature toward the end of an accounting year rather than at the start of the following year. You will then benefit from the 100% first year allowance at an earlier date.
Financial losses through your new business
It is almost certain that your business will go through both good and bad times. Generally losses can be set against other income or capital gains of the same tax year. Any unrelieved loss then has to be carried forward for offset against profits of the same business in future years.
Income Tax and National Insurance
In working out the amount of income tax due on your business profits you can deduct the personal allowance, £11,500 for 2017/18. The balance is taxable at the following rates for 2017/18:
Band of Taxable Income (£)
Rate of Tax (%)
Tax on Band (£)
Cumulative Tax (£)
0 – 33,500
33,501 – 150,000
The Scottish tax bands differ slightly.
SELF EMPLOYED TAX TIP
As a self-employed taxpayer you can set up a personal pension to save for your old age. You can make:
- Regular contributions or ad hoc payments.
The maximum amount you can contribute on which you will get tax relief at your top rate of tax is equivalent to:
- Your annual business profits, but subject to a maximum of £40,000.
National Insurance Contributions for self employed
In addition to Income Tax, sole traders usually pay two types of National Insurance Contributions (NICs), namely:
- Class 2 NI at £2.85 per week for the 2017/18 tax year.
- Class 4 NI at 9% on profits between £8,164 and £45,000, reducing to 2% on profits over £45,000 for the 2017/18 tax year.
You will find a more detailed explanation of taxes and NICs for self employed workers in;
Other factors to bear in mind
Self-employed individuals cannot claim some of the state benefits such as the contribution based Jobseekers Allowance, Statutory Sick, Maternity and Paternity pay.
As your business progresses and becomes more profitable you should think about transferring it to a Limited Company.
Always look to the future and plan for your retirement whether you are contemplating a sale or handing the business down to the next generation.
About the author
This guide has been written exclusively for ByteStart by David Genders, author of The Daily Telegraph Tax Guide since 1982. Having been a Partner in the firm, he is now a Consultant to Sayers Butterworth LLP, a firm of Chartered Accountants specializing in personal tax issues.
More help on being self employed
Bytestart is packed with help and guidance on all aspects of starting your own business, try some of our most popular guides for startups;
- How to choose the best online accounting software for your business
- A Guide to Bookkeeping for new business owners
- Setting up accounts for a sole trader – A beginner’s guide
- Book-keeping basics every new business owner must know
- 10 Ways small business owners can pay less tax
- Could you cut your tax bill by claiming some of these business expenses?
- 10 Common Self-Assessment Tax Return mistakes and how to avoid them
- Tax rates, thresholds & allowances for small business owners 2016/2017
- 5 Ways to unlock finance for your startup business
- Top 10 business planning tips for start-ups
- 21 Costly VAT Mistakes businesses make on their VAT Returns
- 15 Questions to ask before hiring an accountant for your small business
Funding your business
- Asset Finance – A Guide for small business owners
- A Guide to ‘Alternative Finance’ – the new funding options for startups and small businesses
- Finding finance for your new business – funding advice for start-ups
- Invoice Finance – What is it and how can it help my business?